Brazil is the fifth-biggest country in the world and the largest country in South America. With a 4,500-mile (7,400-kilometre) Atlantic Ocean coastline, it forms a massive triangle on the eastern side of the continent. Except for Chile and Ecuador, it shares borders with every country in South America.
Brazil has an extremely diverse landscape. It is well renowned for its extensive woods, notably the Amazon, the largest jungle in the world, which is located in the north. Yet there are also vast wetlands, rough hills, pine woods, dry grasslands (known as pampas), enormous plateaus, and a lengthy coastal plain.
The Amazon River and the surrounding jungles dominate northern Brazil. The Amazon is a network of many hundreds of waterways, not just one river. It measures 4,250 miles in total (6,840 kilometres). The river is home to thousands of different species, including the notorious piranha and the boto, or pink river dolphin.
Humans and culture
Three ethnic groups—Amerindians, European settlers, primarily from Portugal, and Africans—make up the majority of Brazilians. Waves of immigrants from Europe, the Middle East, and even Japan began to arrive in the 19th century, adding to this mixture. Its cultural diversity has produced a vibrant religious, musical, and gastronomic culture.
Brazilians are passionate about soccer, and their nation has given the world some of the best players. Edson Arantes do Nascimento, better known as Pelé, is the most well-known of them. More than any other country, Brazil has won the World Cup soccer finals five times.
The world’s widest range of animal species can be found in Brazil. It supports 600 distinct animal species, 1,500 different fish species, 1,600 different bird species, and an astounding 100,000 different insect species. The majority of the animal life in Brazil is found in its jungles, although the pampas and semi desert areas are also home to numerous rare species.
The Pantanal is a flat, swampy region located in central-western Brazil. The largest wetland in the entire globe is this patchwork of tiny islands and flooded lagoons. Huge capybaras, vicious South American alligators known as caimans, and enormous anacondas are all found in this region.
Brazil’s rainforests have long been used as a resource by humans. But forest damage has increased dramatically since the arrival of the Europeans about five centuries ago. Large portions of the Amazon rainforest are disappearing every year, and much of Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest is already gone. Although the government has created numerous national parks and refuges, they only occupy roughly 7% of the country.
In Brazil, there is a president, a National Congress, and a judicial system. The nation battled with democracy from 1888 until recently. Nonetheless, the military regime was peacefully overthrown in 1985, and by 1995, Brazil’s politics and economy had stabilized somewhat.
Brazil can grow a wide range of crops due to its diverse soils and weather. Sugarcane, latex, coffee, cocoa beans, cotton, soybeans, rice, and tropical fruits are among the agricultural products it exports. Brazil is also the biggest industrialized country in South America, producing steel, chemicals, automobiles, and aircraft.